Record Information
Version 1.0
Creation Date 2009-03-06 11:58:02 -0700
Update Date 2014-08-11 10:32:41 -0600
Accession Number T3D0076
Identification
Common Name Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
Description Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthlate (DEHP) is a manufactured chemical that is commonly added to plastics to make them flexible. DEHP exposure is generally low and not harmful, but increased exposures resulting from intravenous fluids delivered through plastic tubing or ingesting contaminated foods or water may have toxic effects. This is of particular concern since DEHP is known to leach into liquid that come in contact with DEHP containing plastic. (L181, L182)
Compound Type
  • Organic Compound
  • Plasticizer
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Phthalate
  • Cosmetic Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Dioctyl phthalate
  2. 1, 2-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester
  3. 1, 2-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid, bis(ethylhexyl) ester
  4. 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid
  5. 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester
  6. 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid bis-(1-ethylhexyl) ester
  7. 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester
  8. 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid, bis(ethylhexyl) ester
  9. 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid, bis-(1-ethylhexyl) ester
  10. 2-Ethylhexyl phthalate
  11. Benzenedicarboxylic Acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester
  12. Bi(2-ethylhexyl)trimellitate ester
  13. Bis (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate (Dioctyl phthalate)
  14. Bis(2-ethylhexy) phthalate
  15. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylate
  16. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate
  17. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) o-phthalate
  18. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
  19. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-ring-UL-14C
  20. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)ester phthalic Acid
  21. Bis(ethylhexyl) phthalate
  22. Bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP)
  23. Bis-(2-ethylhexyl)ester kyseliny ftalove [Czech]
  24. Bis-2-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate
  25. Di(2-Ethylhexyl phthalate)
  26. Di(2-ethylhexyl) o-phthalate
  27. Di(2-ethylhexyl) orthophthalate
  28. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
  29. Di(2-ethylhexyl)orthophthalate
  30. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
  31. Di(ethylhexyl) phthalate
  32. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
  33. Di-2 ethyl hexyl adipate
  34. Di-2-ethyl hexyl azelate
  35. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate
  36. Di-2-ethylhexylphthalate
  37. Di-iso-octyl phthalate
  38. Di-sec-octyl phthalate
  39. Diacizer dop
  40. Dicapryl phthalate
  41. Diethylhexyl phthalate
  42. Dioctyl o-benzenedicarboxylate
  43. Dioctyl phthalate (van)
  44. Dioctyl-o-benzenedicarboxylate
  45. Dioctylphthalate
  46. Dof [russian plasticizer]
  47. Ergoplas t fdo
  48. Ergoplast fdo
  49. Ergoplast fdo-s
  50. Etalon
  51. Etalon (plasticizer)
  52. Ethyl hexyl phthalate
  53. Ethylhexyl phthalate
  54. Fleximel
  55. Flexol dop
  56. Flexol plasticizer dop
  57. Good-rite gp 264
  58. Hatcol dop
  59. Hercoflex 260
  60. Jayflex dop
  61. Kodaflex DP
  62. Kodaflex dehp
  63. Kodaflex dop
  64. Merrol dop
  65. Mollan o
  66. Monocizer dop
  67. Morflex 310
  68. Morflex 410
  69. N-dioctyl phthalate
  70. Nuoplaz dop
  71. O-benzenedicarboxylic Acid, dioctyl ester
  72. Octoil
  73. Octyl PH thalate
  74. Octyl phthalate
  75. Octyl phthalate (van)
  76. Palatinol ah
  77. Palatinol dop
  78. Phthalic Acid bis(2-ethylhexyl ester)
  79. Phthalic Acid bis(2-ethylhexyl ester)-ring-UL-14C
  80. Phthalic Acid di(2-ethylhexyl) ester
  81. Phthalic Acid dioctyl ester
  82. Phthalic Acid dioctyl ester (van)
  83. Phthalic Acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester
  84. Phthalic Acid, dioctyl ester
  85. Pittsburgh PX-138
  86. Plasthall dop
  87. Plasticizer 28P
  88. Platinol ah
  89. Platinol dop
  90. Polycizer 162
  91. Polycizer dop
  92. RC plasticizer dop
  93. Reomol D 79P
  94. Reomol DCP
  95. Reomol dop
  96. Sansocizer R 8000
  97. Sansocizer dop
  98. Sconamoll dop
  99. Sicol 150
  100. Staflex dop
  101. Truflex dop
  102. Union carbide flexo l 380
  103. Union carbide flexol 380
  104. Vestinol ah
  105. Vinicizer 80
  106. Witcizer 312
  107. Bis (2-Etheylexyl) Phthalate
  108. Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) 1,2-benzenedicar boxylate
  109. Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate
  110. DEHP
  111. Phthalic acid bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester
Chemical Formula C24H38O4
Average Molecular Weight 390.5561
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 390.277009704
IUPAC Name
1,2-bis(2-ethylhexyl) benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate
Traditional IUPAC Name
2-ethylhexyl phthalate
CAS Registry Number 117-81-7
SMILES
CCCCC(CC)COC(=O)C1=CC=CC=C1C(=O)OCC(CC)CCCC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C24H38O4/c1-5-9-13-19(7-3)17-27-23(25)21-15-11-12-16-22(21)24(26)28-18-20(8-4)14-10-6-2/h11-12,15-16,19-20H,5-10,13-14,17-18H2,1-4H3
InChI Key InChIKey=BJQHLKABXJIVAM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Benzenoids
Class Benzene and Substituted Derivatives
Sub Class Benzoic Acid and Derivatives
Direct Parent o-Phthalic Acid and Derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Benzoic Acid Esters
  • Benzylethers
  • Benzoyl Derivatives
  • Dicarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
  • Carboxylic Acid Esters
  • Enolates
Molecular Framework Aromatic Homomonocyclic Compounds
Substituents
  • benzoate ester
  • benzylether
  • benzoyl
  • dicarboxylic acid derivative
  • carboxylic acid ester
  • enolate
External Descriptors
  • a small molecule(Cyc)
  • phthalate ester(ChEBI)
  • Phthalates(KEGG)
Biological Properties
Status Unknown/Not Detected
Origin Not Available
Cellular Locations Not Available
Biofluid Locations Not Available
Tissue Locations Not Available
Pathways Not Available
Physical Properties
State Not Available
Appearance Coloress liquid.
Experimental Properties
Property Value
Melting Point -55 C
Boiling Point 385°C
Solubility 0.00027 mg/mL at 25 °C [DEFOE,DL et al. (1990)]
LogP Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility1.08e-04 g/lALOGPS
logP7.07ALOGPS
logP8.03ChemAxon
logS-6.6ALOGPS
pKa (strongest basic)-6.7ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area52.6ChemAxon
rotatable bond count16ChemAxon
refractivity114.41ChemAxon
polarizability46.56ChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra Not Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of Exposure Oral (L1903) ; inhalation (L1903) ; dermal (L1903)
Mechanism of Toxicity Monoethylhexylphthalate (MEHP), one of the major metabolites of DEHP, induces peroxisome proliferation by activating peroxisome proliferator activated receptors. This is believed to increase production of hydrogen peroxide by peroxisomes and enhance cell proliferation, leading to hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects. MEHP is also believed to exhibit testicular toxicity by targeting and damaging the Sertoli cells. DEHP may act as an antiandrogen during a critical stage of reproductive tract differentiation by reducing testosterone in fetal males, hindering development. (L181, A106)
Metabolism DEHP is mainly absorbed via ingestion. It is hydrolyzed in the small intestine and absorbed as monoethylhexylphthalate (MEHP) and 2-ethylhexanol, then likely distributed to the adipose tissues and kidneys. MEHP is further metabolized via numerous oxidative reactions, resulting in the formation of 30 or more metabolites, some of which can be conjugated with glucuronic acid for excretion. Oxidation of 2-ethylhexanol primarily yields 2-ethylhexanoic acid and several keto acid derivatives. Most DEHP metabolites are excreted in the urine as glucuronide conjugates, while unmetabolized DEHP is excreted in the faeces. (L181)
Toxicity Values LD50: 33.9 g/kg (Oral, Rabbit) (T33) LD50: 10 g/kg (Dermal, Guinea pig) (T33) LD50: 30.7 g/kg (Intraperitoneal, Rat) (T33)
Lethal Dose Not Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification) 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (L135)
Uses/Sources DEHP is present in plastic products such as wall coverings, tablecloths, floor tiles, furniture upholstery, shower curtains, garden hoses, swimming pool liners, rainwear, baby pants, dolls, some toys, shoes, automobile upholstery and tops, packaging film and sheets, sheathing for wire and cable, medical tubing, and blood storage bags. (L181)
Minimum Risk Level Intermediate Oral: 0.1 mg/kg/day (L134) Chronic Oral: 0.06 mg/kg/day (L134)
Health Effects Chronic and/or high levels of DEHP exposure may cause reproductive and developmental damage. This includes damaged sperm, delayed sexual maturity, and deficiencies in the development of male babies. DEHP may also cause liver and kidney damage, and is potentially carcinogenic. (L181, L182)
Symptoms Phthalate esters are endocrine disruptors and can cause a number of developmental malformations termed 'phthalate syndrome'. (W642)
Treatment Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank ID Not Available
HMDB ID Not Available
PubChem Compound ID 8343
ChEMBL ID Not Available
ChemSpider ID Not Available
KEGG ID C03690
UniProt ID Not Available
OMIM ID Not Available
ChEBI ID 17747
BioCyc ID BIS2-ETHYLHEXYLPHTHALATE
CTD ID D004051
Stitch ID Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
PDB ID Not Available
ACToR ID 617
Wikipedia Link Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
References
General References
  • A106 — Lapinskas PJ, Brown S, Leesnitzer LM, Blanchard S, Swanson C, Cattley RC, Corton JC: Role of PPARalpha in mediating the effects of phthalates and metabolites in the liver. Toxicology. 2005 Feb 1;207(1):149-63. [15590130 ]
  • T33 — WHO (1992). Environmental Health Criteria 131: Diethylhexyl Phthalate.
  • L134 — ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  • L135 — International Agency for Research on Cancer (2009). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  • L181 — ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2002). Toxicological profile for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  • L182 — Wikipedia. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Last Updated 25 April 2009. [Link]
  • L1903 — Wikipedia. Phthalate. Last Updated 22 November 2009. [Link]

Targets

1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety (By similarity). Receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the ACOX1 and P450 genes. Transactivation activity requires heterodimerization with RXRA and is antagonized by NR2C2.

Monoethylhexylphthalate (MEHP), one of the major metabolites of DEHP, induces peroxisome proliferation by activating peroxisome proliferator activated receptors. This is believed to increase production of hydrogen peroxide by peroxisomes and enhance cell proliferation, leading to hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects. (R359)
UniProt ID: Q07869
Gene: PPARA
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A106 — Lapinskas PJ, Brown S, Leesnitzer LM, Blanchard S, Swanson C, Cattley RC, Corton JC: Role of PPARalpha in mediating the effects of phthalates and metabolites in the liver. Toxicology. 2005 Feb 1;207(1):149-63. [15590130 ]

2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta

Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Has a preference for poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-linoleic acid and eicosapentanoic acid. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to promoter elements of target genes. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the acyl-CoA oxidase gene. Decreases expression of NPC1L1 once activated by a ligand.

Monoethylhexylphthalate (MEHP), one of the major metabolites of DEHP, induces peroxisome proliferation by activating peroxisome proliferator activated receptors. This is believed to increase production of hydrogen peroxide by peroxisomes and enhance cell proliferation, leading to hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects. (R359)
UniProt ID: Q03181
Gene: PPARD
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A106 — Lapinskas PJ, Brown S, Leesnitzer LM, Blanchard S, Swanson C, Cattley RC, Corton JC: Role of PPARalpha in mediating the effects of phthalates and metabolites in the liver. Toxicology. 2005 Feb 1;207(1):149-63. [15590130 ]

3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to a promoter element in the gene for acyl-CoA oxidase and activates its transcription. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses.

Monoethylhexylphthalate (MEHP), one of the major metabolites of DEHP, induces peroxisome proliferation by activating peroxisome proliferator activated receptors. This is believed to increase production of hydrogen peroxide by peroxisomes and enhance cell proliferation, leading to hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects. (R359)
UniProt ID: P37231
Gene: PPARG
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A106 — Lapinskas PJ, Brown S, Leesnitzer LM, Blanchard S, Swanson C, Cattley RC, Corton JC: Role of PPARalpha in mediating the effects of phthalates and metabolites in the liver. Toxicology. 2005 Feb 1;207(1):149-63. [15590130 ]

4. C-C motif chemokine 2

Chemotactic factor that attracts monocytes and basophils but not neutrophils or eosinophils. Augments monocyte anti-tumor activity. Has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by monocytic infiltrates, like psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis or atherosclerosis. May be involved in the recruitment of monocytes into the arterial wall during the disease process of atherosclerosis.

UniProt ID: P13500
Gene: CCL2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

5. C-C motif chemokine 26

Chemotactic for eosinophils and basophils. Binds to CCR3.

UniProt ID: Q9Y258
Gene: CCL26
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

6. ADP-ribosyl cyclase 1

Synthesizes cyclic ADP-ribose, a second messenger for glucose-induced insulin secretion. Also has cADPr hydrolase activity. Also moonlights as a receptor in cells of the immune system.

UniProt ID: P28907
Gene: CD38
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

7. Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 5

Receptor for TNFSF5/CD40LG.

UniProt ID: P25942
Gene: CD40
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

8. Early activation antigen CD69

Involved in lymphocyte proliferation and functions as a signal transmitting receptor in lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and platelets.

UniProt ID: Q07108
Gene: CD69
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

9. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1

Cytokine that plays an essential role in the regulation of survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cells, especially mononuclear phagocytes, such as macrophages and monocytes. Promotes the release of proinflammatory chemokines, and thereby plays an important role in innate immunity and in inflammatory processes. Plays an important role in the regulation of osteoclast proliferation and differentiation, the regulation of bone resorption, and is required for normal bone development. Required for normal male and female fertility. Promotes reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, regulates formation of membrane ruffles, cell adhesion and cell migration. Plays a role in lipoprotein clearance.

UniProt ID: P09603
Gene: CSF1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
Constants:
Type Value Assay Type Assay Source
Active 1.48 uM BSK_hDFCGF_MCSF_down BioSeek
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

10. C-X-C motif chemokine 10

Chemotactic for monocytes and T-lymphocytes. Binds to CXCR3.

UniProt ID: P02778
Gene: CXCL10
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

11. C-X-C motif chemokine 9

Cytokine that affects the growth, movement, or activation state of cells that participate in immune and inflammatory response. Chemotactic for activated T-cells. Binds to CXCR3.

UniProt ID: Q07325
Gene: CXCL9
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
Constants:
Type Value Assay Type Assay Source
Active 4.44 uM BSK_hDFCGF_MIG_down BioSeek
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

12. Cytochrome P450 2B6

Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.

UniProt ID: P20813
Gene: CYP2B6
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
Constants:
Type Value Assay Type Assay Source
Active 5.88 uM CLZD_CYP2B6_6 CellzDirect
Active 3.97 uM CLZD_CYP2B6_24 CellzDirect
Active 1.38 uM CLZD_CYP2B6_48 CellzDirect
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

13. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain

Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides, autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments. In addition to APCs, other cells of the gastrointestinal tract, such as epithelial cells, express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APCs, which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL, leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). The removal of CLIP is facilitated by HLA-DM via direct binding to the alpha-beta-CLIP complex so that CLIP is released. HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. The MHC II molecule bound to a peptide is then transported to the cell membrane surface. In B-cells, the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. Primary dendritic cells (DCs) also to express HLA-DO. Lysosomal miroenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules, increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading.

UniProt ID: P01903
Gene: HLA-DRA
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

14. Interleukin-8

IL-8 is a chemotactic factor that attracts neutrophils, basophils, and T-cells, but not monocytes. It is also involved in neutrophil activation. It is released from several cell types in response to an inflammatory stimulus. IL-8(6-77) has a 5-10-fold higher activity on neutrophil activation, IL-8(5-77) has increased activity on neutrophil activation and IL-8(7-77) has a higher affinity to receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 as compared to IL-8(1-77), respectively.

UniProt ID: P10145
Gene: IL8
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

15. Interstitial collagenase

Cleaves collagens of types I, II, and III at one site in the helical domain. Also cleaves collagens of types VII and X. In case of HIV infection, interacts and cleaves the secreted viral Tat protein, leading to a decrease in neuronal Tat's mediated neurotoxicity.

UniProt ID: P03956
Gene: MMP1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

16. Matrix metalloproteinase-9

May play an essential role in local proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and in leukocyte migration. Could play a role in bone osteoclastic resorption. Cleaves KiSS1 at a Gly-|-Leu bond. Cleaves type IV and type V collagen into large C-terminal three quarter fragments and shorter N-terminal one quarter fragments. Degrades fibronectin but not laminin or Pz-peptide.

UniProt ID: P14780
Gene: MMP9
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
Constants:
Type Value Assay Type Assay Source
Active 1.48 uM BSK_KF3CT_MMP9_down BioSeek
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

17. Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2

Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes.

UniProt ID: O75469
Gene: NR1I2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

18. Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 3

Binds and transactivates the retinoic acid response elements that control expression of the retinoic acid receptor beta 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genes. Transactivates both the phenobarbital responsive element module of the human CYP2B6 gene and the CYP3A4 xenobiotic response element.

UniProt ID: Q14994
Gene: NR1I3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

19. Urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor

Acts as a receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator. Plays a role in localizing and promoting plasmin formation. Mediates the proteolysis-independent signal transduction activation effects of U-PA. It is subject to negative-feedback regulation by U-PA which cleaves it into an inactive form.

UniProt ID: Q03405
Gene: PLAUR
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

20. Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype

Receptor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G(s) proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase. The subsequent raise in intracellular cAMP is responsible for the relaxing effect of this receptor on smooth muscle.

UniProt ID: P43116
Gene: PTGER2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

21. P-selectin

Ca(2+)-dependent receptor for myeloid cells that binds to carbohydrates on neutrophils and monocytes. Mediates the interaction of activated endothelial cells or platelets with leukocytes. The ligand recognized is sialyl-Lewis X. Mediates rapid rolling of leukocyte rolling over vascular surfaces during the initial steps in inflammation through interaction with PSGL1.

UniProt ID: P16109
Gene: SELP
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

22. Bile salt sulfotransferase

Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfonation of steroids and bile acids in the liver and adrenal glands.

UniProt ID: Q06520
Gene: SULT2A1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
Constants:
Type Value Assay Type Assay Source
Active 0.48 uM CLZD_SULT2A1_6 CellzDirect
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

23. Tumor necrosis factor

Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation. The TNF intracellular domain (ICD) form induces IL12 production in dendritic cells.

UniProt ID: P01375
Gene: TNF
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

24. Translocator protein

Responsible for the manifestation of peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites and is most likely to comprise binding domains for benzodiazepines and isoquinoline carboxamides. May play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme. Plays a role in the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes in steroidogenic cells (By similarity).

UniProt ID: P30536
Gene: TSPO
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
Constants:
Type Value Assay Type Assay Source
Active 8.9 uM NVS_MP_hPBR Novascreen
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]

25. Vascular cell adhesion protein 1

Important in cell-cell recognition. Appears to function in leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Interacts with the beta-1 integrin VLA4 on leukocytes, and mediates both adhesion and signal transduction. The VCAM1/VLA4 interaction may play a pathophysiologic role both in immune responses and in leukocyte emigration to sites of inflammation.

UniProt ID: P19320
Gene: VCAM1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1980 — ToxCastDB (EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency) [Link]