Record Information
Version 1.0
Creation Date 2009-03-06 11:58:01 -0700
Update Date 2013-04-25 02:32:42 -0600
Accession Number T3D0071
Identification
Common Name Toluene
Description Toluene is an aromatic hydrocarbon that occurs naturally in crude oil and in the tolu tree. It is also produced in the process of making gasoline and other fuels from crude oil and making coke from coal. (R336)
Compound Type
  • Organic Compound
  • Industrial Precursor/Intermediate
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Solvent
  • Cosmetic Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. methyl Benzene
  2. methyl-Benzene
  3. Dracyl
  4. MethAcide
  5. phenyl-Methane
  6. Methyl-benzene
  7. Methylbenzene
  8. Methylbenzol
  9. Monomethyl benzene
  10. Octadeuterotoluene
  11. Phenyl methane
  12. Phenylmethane
  13. Tolu-sol
  14. Tolueen(dutch)
  15. Toluen(czech)
  16. Toluene (technical)
  17. Tolueno [spanish]
  18. Toluolo(italian)
Chemical Formula C7H8
Average Molecular Weight 92.1384
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 92.062600256
Chemical IUPAC Name
toluene
CAS Registry Number 108-88-3
SMILES
CC1=CC=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H8/c1-7-5-3-2-4-6-7/h2-6H,1H3
InChI Key InChIKey=YXFVVABEGXRONW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Benzenoids
Class Benzene and Substituted Derivatives
Sub Class Toluenes
Direct Parent Toluenes
Alternative Parents Not Available
Molecular Framework Aromatic Homomonocyclic Compounds
Substituents Not Available
External Descriptors
  • an aromatic compound(Cyc)
  • methylbenzene(ChEBI)
  • toluenes(ChEBI)
DrugBank ID Not Available
PubChem Compound ID 1140
KEGG ID C01455
UniProt ID Not Available
OMIM ID Not Available
ChEBI ID 17578
BioCyc ID CPD-616
CTD ID D014050
Stitch ID Toluene
PDB ID Not Available
ACToR ID 1391
Wikipedia Link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toluene
Physical Properties
Appearance Colorless liquid.
Melting Point -94.9 C
Solubility 0.526 mg/mL at 25 °C [SANEMASA,I et al. (1982)]
Predicted LogP 2.486667205333333
Toxicity Profile
Route of Exposure Oral (R336) ; inhalation (R336) ; dermal (R336)
Mechanism of Action Neurological effects such as central nervous system depression and narcosis is generally thought to involve reversible interactions between toluene and components of nervous system membranes or intercalation of toluene into its lipid bilayer. This may change the activities of enzymes involved in the synthesis and/or degradation of neurotransmitters or alter the binding of neurotransmitters to membrane receptors. Toluene binds to cardiac Na+ channels in the open state and unbinds either when channels move between inactivated states or from an inactivated to a closed state. The use and frequency-dependent block of Na+ by toluene might be responsible, at least in part, for its arrhythmogenic effect. (R201, R336)
Metabolism Inhalation and ingestion are the primary routes of exposure, though toluene may also be absorbed through the skin. It accumulates rapidly in the brain and is subsequently deposited in other tissues according to their lipid content, with the highest levels attained in adipose tissue. The primary initial steps in toluene metabolism is side-chain hydroxylation catalyzed predominately by the cytochrome P450 isozyme CYP2E1, followed by oxidation to benzoic acid. Most of the benzoic acid is then conjugated with glycine to form hippuric acid, but a small portion can be conjugated with UDP-glucuronate to form the acyl-glucuronide. A very small portion of absorbed toluene can be converted by CYP1A2, CYP2B2, or CYP2E1 to ortho- or para-cresol. These metabolites are excreted in the urine, and the remaining toluene is exhaled unchanged. (R029, R336)
Toxicity Values LD50: 5000 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (R263) LD50: 1332 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Rat) (R263) LD50: 1960 mg/kg (Intravenous, Rat) (R263) LD50: 2250 mg/kg (Subcutaneous, Mouse) (R263) LD50: 12 124 mg/kg (Dermal, Rabbit) (R263) LC50: 400 ppm over 24 hours (Inhalation, Mouse) (R263)
Lethal Dose 50 mg/kg for an adult human. (R293)
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification) 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (R264)
Uses/Sources Toluene is used in paints, paint thinners, fingernail polish, lacquers, adhesives, and rubber and in some printing and leather tanning processes. Gasoline, which contains 5 to 7 perfect toluene by weight, is the largest source of atmospheric emissions and exposure of the general populace. (R029, R336)
Minimum Risk Level Acute Inhalation: 1 ppm (R260) Chronic Inhalation: 0.08 ppm (R260) Acute Oral: 0.8 mg/kg/day (R260) Intermediate Oral: 0.02 mg/kg/day (R260)
Health Effects Toluene primarily targets the nervous system and severe neurotoxicity is sometimes diagnosed in persons who have abused toluene for a prolonged period. Clinical signs include abnormal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, tremors, nystagmus, and cerebral atrophy as well as impaired hearing vision, and speech. Magnetic resonance imaging has revealed permanent changes in brain structure that corresponds to the degree of brain dysfunction. (R029)
Symptoms The central nervous system is the primary target organ of toluene and other alkylbenzenes. Manifestations of exposure range from slight dizziness and headache to unconciousness, respiratory depression and death. Other symptoms include tiredness, confusion, weakness, memory loss, nausea, loss of appetite, and hearing and color vision loss. These symptoms usually disappear when exposure is stopped. (R029, R336)
Treatment Acute central nervous system effects are rapidly reversible upon cessation of exposure. (R020)
References
General References
  • R336 — ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2000). Toxicological profile for toluene. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  • R201 — Cruz SL, Orta-Salazar G, Gauthereau MY, Millan-Perez Pena L, Salinas-Stefanon EM: Inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by toluene exposure. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Oct;140(4):653-60. [14534149 ]
  • R029 — Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  • R263 — Lewis RJ (1996). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  • R293 — National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (2002). RTECS: Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
  • R264 — International Agency for Research on Cancer (2009). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  • R260 — ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  • R020 — Horowitz Y, Greenberg D, Ling G, Lifshitz M: Acrodynia: a case report of two siblings. Arch Dis Child. 2002 Jun;86(6):453. [12023189 ]

Targets

1. Sodium channel subunit beta-1

Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-1 can modulate multiple alpha subunit isoforms from brain, skeletal muscle, and heart. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons. Isoform 2: Cell adhesion molecule that plays a critical role in neuronal migration and pathfinding during brain development. Stimulates neurite outgrowth.

Toluene binds to cardiac Na+ channels in the open state and unbinds either when channels move between inactivated states or from an inactivated to a closed state. The use- and frequency-dependent block of Na+ by toluene might be responsible, at least in part, for its arrhythmogenic effect. (R201)
UniProt ID: Q07699
Gene: SCN1B
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

2. Sodium channel subunit beta-2

Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-2 causes an increase in the plasma membrane surface area and in its folding into microvilli. Interacts with TNR may play a crucial role in clustering and regulation of activity of sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier (By similarity).

Toluene binds to cardiac Na+ channels in the open state and unbinds either when channels move between inactivated states or from an inactivated to a closed state. The use- and frequency-dependent block of Na+ by toluene might be responsible, at least in part, for its arrhythmogenic effect. (R201)
UniProt ID: O60939
Gene: SCN2B
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

3. Sodium channel subunit beta-3

Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes unique persistent sodium currents. Inactivates the sodium channel opening more slowly than the subunit beta-1. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons (By similarity).

Toluene binds to cardiac Na+ channels in the open state and unbinds either when channels move between inactivated states or from an inactivated to a closed state. The use- and frequency-dependent block of Na+ by toluene might be responsible, at least in part, for its arrhythmogenic effect. (R201)
UniProt ID: Q9NY72
Gene: SCN3B
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

4. Sodium channel subunit beta-4

Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes negative shifts in the voltage dependence of activation of certain alpha sodium channels, but does not affect the voltage dependence of inactivation (By similarity).

Toluene binds to cardiac Na+ channels in the open state and unbinds either when channels move between inactivated states or from an inactivated to a closed state. The use- and frequency-dependent block of Na+ by toluene might be responsible, at least in part, for its arrhythmogenic effect. (R201)
UniProt ID: Q8IWT1
Gene: SCN4B
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

5. Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha

This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) channel isoform. This channel is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential. Channel inactivation is regulated by intracellular calcium levels.

Toluene binds to cardiac Na+ channels in the open state and unbinds either when channels move between inactivated states or from an inactivated to a closed state. The use- and frequency-dependent block of Na+ by toluene might be responsible, at least in part, for its arrhythmogenic effect. (R201)
UniProt ID: Q14524
Gene: SCN5A
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

6. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A

NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May play a role in the development of dendritic spines. May play a role in PPP2CB-NMDAR mediated signaling mechanism (By similarity).

Toluene inhibits NMDA receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R340)
UniProt ID: Q8TCU5
Gene: GRIN3A
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

7. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3B

NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.

Toluene inhibits NMDA receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R340)
UniProt ID: O60391
Gene: GRIN3B
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

8. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A

NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels possesses high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Activation requires binding of agonist to both types of subunits.

Toluene inhibits NMDA receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R340)
UniProt ID: Q12879
Gene: GRIN2A
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

9. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B

NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. In concert with DAPK1 at extrasynaptic sites, acts as a central mediator for stroke damage. Its phosphorylation at Ser-1303 by DAPK1 enhances synaptic NMDA receptor channel activity inducing injurious Ca2+ influx through them, resulting in an irreversible neuronal death (By similarity).

Toluene inhibits NMDA receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R340)
UniProt ID: Q13224
Gene: GRIN2B
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

10. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2C

NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.

Toluene inhibits NMDA receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R340)
UniProt ID: Q14957
Gene: GRIN2C
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

11. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2D

NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine.

Toluene inhibits NMDA receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R340)
UniProt ID: O15399
Gene: GRIN2D
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

12. Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1

NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, excitotoxicity, memory acquisition and learning. It mediates neuronal functions in glutamate neurotransmission. Is involved in the cell surface targeting of NMDA receptors (By similarity).

Toluene inhibits NMDA receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R340)
UniProt ID: Q05586
Gene: GRIN1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

13. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: P14867
Gene: GABRA1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

14. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: P47869
Gene: GABRA2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

15. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: P34903
Gene: GABRA3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

16. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: P48169
Gene: GABRA4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

17. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: P31644
Gene: GABRA5
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

18. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: Q16445
Gene: GABRA6
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

19. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: P18505
Gene: GABRB1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

20. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: P47870
Gene: GABRB2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

21. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: P28472
Gene: GABRB3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

22. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: O14764
Gene: GABRD
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

23. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: P78334
Gene: GABRE
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

24. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: Q8N1C3
Gene: GABRG1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

25. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: P18507
Gene: GABRG2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

26. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: Q99928
Gene: GABRG3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

27. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone.

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: O00591
Gene: GABRP
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

28. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: P24046
Gene: GABRR1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

29. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: P28476
Gene: GABRR2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

30. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel (By similarity).

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: A8MPY1
Gene: GABRR3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

31. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

Toluene inhibits GABA(A) receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R338)
UniProt ID: Q9UN88
Gene: GABRQ
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

32. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2

After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.

Toluene inhibits acetylcholine receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R341)
UniProt ID: Q15822
Gene: CHRNA2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

33. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4

After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodium ions.

Toluene inhibits acetylcholine receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R341)
UniProt ID: P43681
Gene: CHRNA4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

34. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-5

After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.

Toluene inhibits acetylcholine receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R341)
UniProt ID: P30532
Gene: CHRNA5
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

35. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7

After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin.

Toluene inhibits acetylcholine receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R341)
UniProt ID: P36544
Gene: CHRNA7
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

36. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2

After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodiun ions.

Toluene inhibits acetylcholine receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R341)
UniProt ID: P17787
Gene: CHRNB2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

37. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-9

Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma. May also regulate keratinocyte adhesion.

Toluene inhibits acetylcholine receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R341)
UniProt ID: Q9UGM1
Gene: CHRNA9
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

38. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-4

After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane.

Toluene inhibits acetylcholine receptors, causing neurotoxic effects. (R341)
UniProt ID: P30926
Gene: CHRNB4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References: