Record Information
Version 1.0
Creation Date 2009-03-06 11:57:59 -0700
Update Date 2014-08-11 11:57:08 -0600
Accession Number T3D0049
Identification
Common Name Cobalt
Description Cobalt is a metallic element with the atomic number 27. It is found naturally in rocks, soil, water, plants, and animals, and is mainly used to produce alloys and pigments. In small amounts cobalt is an essential element for life, as it is part of vitamin B12. However, excess exposure is known to exhibit toxic effects. Cobalt also exists in the toxic radioactive form Cobalt-60. It is one ingredient of cigarette.(L29, L30)
Compound Type
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metal
  • Cobalt Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Aquacat
  2. Cobalt-liq
  3. Cobaltum metallicum
  4. Cobaltum muriaticum
  5. Kobalt
  6. Oligostim Cobalt - Tab 6dh
  7. Raney-cobalt
  8. Super cobalt
Chemical Formula Co
Average Molecular Weight 58.933195
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 58.933200194
IUPAC Name
cobalt(2+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Name
cobalt(2+)
CAS Registry Number 7440-48-4
SMILES
[Co++]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/Co/q+2
InChI Key InChIKey=XLJKHNWPARRRJB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Inorganic Compounds
Super Class Homogeneous Metal Compounds
Class Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Sub Class Not Available
Direct Parent Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Alternative Parents Not Available
Molecular Framework Acyclic Compounds
Substituents Not Available
External Descriptors
  • divalent metal cation(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic dication(ChEBI)
  • a cation(Cyc)
  • cobalt cation(ChEBI)
Biological Properties
Status Unknown/Not Detected
Origin Not Available
Cellular Locations Not Available
Biofluid Locations Not Available
Tissue Locations Not Available
Pathways Not Available
Physical Properties
State Not Available
Appearance Grey metallic solid.
Experimental Properties
Property Value
Melting Point 1495 C
Boiling Point Not Available
Solubility Not Available
LogP Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.23ChemAxon
physiological charge2ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count0ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area0ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity0ChemAxon
polarizability1.78ChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra Not Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of Exposure Inhalation (L29) ; oral (L29) ; dermal (L29) ; radiation (L29)
Mechanism of Toxicity Cobalt is believed to exhibit its toxicity through a oxidant-based and free radical-based processes. It produces oxygen radicals and may be oxidized to ionic cobalt, causing increased lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and inducing certain enzymes that lead to cell apoptosis. Cobalt has also been shown to block inorganic calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. Cobalt can also chelate lipoic acids, impairing oxidation of pyruvate or fatty acids. In addition, cobalt may inhibit DNA repair by interacting with zinc finger DNA repair proteins, and has also been shown to inhibit heme synthesis and glucose metabolism. Cobalt may activate specific helper T-lymphocyte cells and interact directly with immunologic proteins, such as antibodies (IgA and IgE) or Fc receptors, resulting in immunosensitization. Radioactive cobalt damages DNA, RNA, and lipids through ionizing events. (L29)
Metabolism Cobalt is absorbed though the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. Since it is a component of the vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), it is distributed to most tissues of the body. It is transported in the blood, often bound to albumin, with the highest levels being found in the liver and kidney. Cobalt is excreted mainly in the urine and faeces. (L29)
Toxicity Values LD50: 6170 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (T26) LD50: 100 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Rat) (T26)
Lethal Dose 1 to 2 mg/m3 for an adult human. (L138)
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification) 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans. (L135)
Uses/Sources Cobalt is used to produce alloys used in the manufacture of aircraft engines, magnets, grinding and cutting tools, artificial hip and knee joints. Cobalt compounds are also used to color glass, ceramics and paints, and used as a drier for porcelain enamel and paints. Radioactive cobalt is used for commercial and medical purposes, such as for sterilizing medical equipment and consumer products, radiation therapy for treating cancer patients, manufacturing plastics, and irradiating food. (L29)
Minimum Risk Level Chronic Inhalation: 0.0001 mg/m3 (L134) Intermediate Oral: 0.01 mg/kg/day (L134) Acute Radiation: 4 mSv (L134) Chronic Radiation: 1 mSv/yr (L134)
Health Effects Exposure to high amount of cobalt can cause heart, lung, kidney, and liver damage. Skin contact is known to result in contact dermatitis. Cobalt may also have mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. Exposure to cobalt radiation causes cell damage and can lead to severe burns and death at high doses. (L29, L30)
Symptoms Exposure to cobalt radiation may cause acute radiation syndrome, which is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding, and possibly coma. (L29)
Treatment Treatment of cobalt poisoning is symptomatic. (L29)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank ID Not Available
HMDB ID Not Available
PubChem Compound ID 104730
ChEMBL ID Not Available
ChemSpider ID Not Available
KEGG ID C00175
UniProt ID Not Available
OMIM ID Not Available
ChEBI ID 27638
BioCyc ID COBALT-FACTOR-III
CTD ID D003035
Stitch ID Cobalt
PDB ID Not Available
ACToR ID 7202
Wikipedia Link Cobalt
References
General References
  • A38 — Ekinci D, Beydemir S, Kufrevioglu OI: In vitro inhibitory effects of some heavy metals on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrases. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2007 Dec;22(6):745-50. doi: 10.1080/14756360601176048 . [18237030 ]
  • A39 — Amirtharaj GJ, Natarajan SK, Mukhopadhya A, Zachariah UG, Hegde SK, Kurian G, Balasubramanian KA, Ramachandran A: Fatty acids influence binding of cobalt to serum albumin in patients with fatty liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008 May;1782(5):349-54. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2008.02.006. Epub 2008 Feb 29. [18346470 ]
  • T26 — National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (2002). RTECS: Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
  • L29 — ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2004). Toxicological profile for cobalt. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  • L30 — Wikipedia. Cobalt. Last Updated 21 March 2009. [Link]
  • L134 — ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  • L135 — International Agency for Research on Cancer (2009). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  • L138 — HSDB: Hazardous Substances Data Bank. National Library of Medicine (2001). [Link]

Targets

1. Carbonic anhydrase 1

Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.

Cobalt inhibits carbonic anhydrases.(A38, A98)
UniProt ID: P00915
Gene: CA1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A38 — Ekinci D, Beydemir S, Kufrevioglu OI: In vitro inhibitory effects of some heavy metals on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrases. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2007 Dec;22(6):745-50. doi: 10.1080/14756360601176048 . [18237030 ]
  • A98 — Ul-Hassan M, Scozzafava A, Chohan ZH, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: metal complexes of a sulfanilamide derived Schiff base and their interaction with isozymes I, II and IV. J Enzyme Inhib. 2001 Dec;16(6):499-505. [12164389 ]

2. Carbonic anhydrase 2

Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.

Cobalt inhibits carbonic anhydrases.(A38, A98)
UniProt ID: P00918
Gene: CA2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A38 — Ekinci D, Beydemir S, Kufrevioglu OI: In vitro inhibitory effects of some heavy metals on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrases. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2007 Dec;22(6):745-50. doi: 10.1080/14756360601176048 . [18237030 ]
  • A98 — Ul-Hassan M, Scozzafava A, Chohan ZH, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: metal complexes of a sulfanilamide derived Schiff base and their interaction with isozymes I, II and IV. J Enzyme Inhib. 2001 Dec;16(6):499-505. [12164389 ]

3. Carbonic anhydrase 4

Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina and retina epithelium, and acid release in the choriocapillaris in the choroid.

Cobalt inhibits carbonic anhydrases.(A38, A98)
UniProt ID: P22748
Gene: CA4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A38 — Ekinci D, Beydemir S, Kufrevioglu OI: In vitro inhibitory effects of some heavy metals on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrases. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2007 Dec;22(6):745-50. doi: 10.1080/14756360601176048 . [18237030 ]
  • A98 — Ul-Hassan M, Scozzafava A, Chohan ZH, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: metal complexes of a sulfanilamide derived Schiff base and their interaction with isozymes I, II and IV. J Enzyme Inhib. 2001 Dec;16(6):499-505. [12164389 ]

4. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C

Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1C gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing the alpha-1C subunit play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. The various isoforms display marked differences in the sensitivity to DHP compounds. Binding of calmodulin or CABP1 at the same regulatory sites results in an opposit effects on the channel function.

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: Q13936
Gene: CACNA1C
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

5. Ig epsilon chain C region

Cobalt interacts with specific IgE antibodies, resulting in immunosensitization. (A101)
UniProt ID: P01854
Gene: IGHE
Protein Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A101 — Shirakawa T, Kusaka Y, Fujimura N, Goto S, Morimoto K: The existence of specific antibodies to cobalt in hard metal asthma. Clin Allergy. 1988 Sep;18(5):451-60. [3233723 ]

6. Ig alpha-2 chain C region

Ig alpha is the major immunoglobulin class in body secretions. It may serve both to defend against local infection and to prevent access of foreign antigens to the general immunologic system.

Cobalt interacts with specific IgA antibodies, resulting in immunosensitization. (A102)
UniProt ID: P01877
Gene: IGHA2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A102 — Bencko V, Wagner V, Wagnerova M, Reichrtova E: Immuno-biochemical findings in groups of individuals occupationally and non-occupationally exposed to emissions containing nickel and cobalt. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1983;27(4):387-94. [6663071 ]

7. Ig alpha-1 chain C region

Ig alpha is the major immunoglobulin class in body secretions. It may serve both to defend against local infection and to prevent access of foreign antigens to the general immunologic system.

Cobalt interacts with specific IgA antibodies, resulting in immunosensitization. (A102)
UniProt ID: P01876
Gene: IGHA1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A102 — Bencko V, Wagner V, Wagnerova M, Reichrtova E: Immuno-biochemical findings in groups of individuals occupationally and non-occupationally exposed to emissions containing nickel and cobalt. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1983;27(4):387-94. [6663071 ]

8. DNA repair protein complementing XP-A cells

Involved in DNA excision repair. Initiates repair by binding to damaged sites with various affinities, depending on the photoproduct and the transcriptional state of the region. Required for UV-induced CHEK1 phosphorylation and the recruitment of CEP164 to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers (CPD), sites of DNA damage after UV irradiation.

Cobalt inhibits DNA repair by interacting with zinc finger DNA repair proteins. (A103)
UniProt ID: P23025
Gene: XPA
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A103 — Hartwig A, Asmuss M, Ehleben I, Herzer U, Kostelac D, Pelzer A, Schwerdtle T, Burkle A: Interference by toxic metal ions with DNA repair processes and cell cycle control: molecular mechanisms. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Oct;110 Suppl 5:797-9. [12426134 ]

9. Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1

Involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, by catalyzing the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of a limited number of acceptor proteins involved in chromatin architecture and in DNA metabolism. This modification follows DNA damages and appears as an obligatory step in a detection/signaling pathway leading to the reparation of DNA strand breaks. Mediates the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of APLF and CHFR. Positively regulates the transcription of MTUS1 and negatively regulates the transcription of MTUS2/TIP150. With EEF1A1 and TXK, forms a complex that acts as a T-helper 1 (Th1) cell-specific transcription factor and binds the promoter of IFN-gamma to directly regulate its transcription, and is thus involved importantly in Th1 cytokine production.

Cobalt inhibits DNA repair by interacting with zinc finger DNA repair proteins. (A103)
UniProt ID: P09874
Gene: PARP1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A103 — Hartwig A, Asmuss M, Ehleben I, Herzer U, Kostelac D, Pelzer A, Schwerdtle T, Burkle A: Interference by toxic metal ions with DNA repair processes and cell cycle control: molecular mechanisms. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Oct;110 Suppl 5:797-9. [12426134 ]

10. 5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid-specific, mitochondrial

Cobalt inhibits heme synthesis by preventing synthesis of 5-aminolaevulinate via inhibition of 5-aminolaevulinate synthase. (L22)
UniProt ID: P22557
Gene: ALAS2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L22 — Wikipedia. Mercury poisoning. Last Updated 8 March 2009. [Link]

11. 5-aminolevulinate synthase, nonspecific, mitochondrial

Cobalt inhibits heme synthesis by preventing synthesis of 5-aminolaevulinate via inhibition of 5-aminolaevulinate synthase. (L22)
UniProt ID: P13196
Gene: ALAS1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L22 — Wikipedia. Mercury poisoning. Last Updated 8 March 2009. [Link]

12. Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-1 subunit

This protein is a subunit of the dihydropyridine (DHP) sensitive calcium channel. Plays a role in excitation-contraction coupling. The skeletal muscle DHP-sensitive Ca(2+) channel may function only as a multiple subunit complex.

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: Q06432
Gene: CACNG1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

13. Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-2 subunit

Regulates the trafficking and gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Promotes their targeting to the cell membrane and synapses and modulates their gating properties by slowing their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization. Does not show subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation and regulates all AMPAR subunits. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state.

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: Q9Y698
Gene: CACNG2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

14. Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-3 subunit

Regulates the trafficking and gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Promotes their targeting to the cell membrane and synapses and modulates their gating properties by slowing their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization. Does not show subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation and regulates all AMPAR subunits. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state (By similarity).

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: O60359
Gene: CACNG3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

15. Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-4 subunit

Regulates the trafficking and gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Promotes their targeting to the cell membrane and synapses and modulates their gating properties by slowing their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization and by mediating their resensitization. Does not show subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation and regulates all AMPAR subunits. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state.

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: Q9UBN1
Gene: CACNG4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

16. Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-5 subunit

Regulates the gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Modulates their gating properties by accelerating their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization. Displays subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation. Shows specificity for GRIA1, GRIA4 and the long isoform of GRIA2. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state (By similarity).

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: Q9UF02
Gene: CACNG5
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

17. Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-6 subunit

Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state (By similarity).

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: Q9BXT2
Gene: CACNG6
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

18. Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-7 subunit

Regulates the trafficking and gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Promotes their targeting to the cell membrane and synapses and modulates their gating properties by slowing their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization and by mediating their resensitization. Displays subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation. Shows specificity only for GRIA1 and GRIA2. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state.

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: P62955
Gene: CACNG7
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

19. Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-8 subunit

Regulates the trafficking and gating properties of AMPA-selective glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Promotes their targeting to the cell membrane and synapses and modulates their gating properties by slowing their rates of activation, deactivation and desensitization and by mediating their resensitization. Does not show subunit-specific AMPA receptor regulation and regulates all AMPAR subunits. Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state.

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: Q8WXS5
Gene: CACNG8
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

20. Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-like subunit

Thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactivated (closed) state. Modulates calcium current when coexpressed with CACNA1G (By similarity).

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: Q8WXS4
Gene: TMEM37
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

21. Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1

The alpha-2/delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels regulates calcium current density and activation/inactivation kinetics of the calcium channel. Plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling (By similarity).

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: P54289
Gene: CACNA2D1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

22. Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2

The alpha-2/delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels regulates calcium current density and activation/inactivation kinetics of the calcium channel. Acts as a regulatory subunit for P/Q-type calcium channel (CACNA1A), N-type (CACNA1B), L-type (CACNA1C OR CACNA1D) and possibly T-type (CACNA1G). Overexpression induces apoptosis.

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: Q9NY47
Gene: CACNA2D2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

23. Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-3

The alpha-2/delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels regulates calcium current density and activation/inactivation kinetics of the calcium channel. Acts as a regulatory subunit for P/Q-type calcium channel (CACNA1A), N-type (CACNA1B), L-type (CACNA1C OR CACNA1D) but not T-type (CACNA1G) (By similarity).

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: Q8IZS8
Gene: CACNA2D3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

24. Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-4

The alpha-2/delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels regulates calcium current density and activation/inactivation kinetics of the calcium channel.

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: Q7Z3S7
Gene: CACNA2D4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

25. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D

Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1D gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA).

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: Q01668
Gene: CACNA1D
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

26. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1F

Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1F gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA).

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: O60840
Gene: CACNA1F
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

27. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S

Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1S gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing the alpha-1S subunit play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle.

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: Q13698
Gene: CACNA1S
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

28. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1

The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: Q02641
Gene: CACNB1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

29. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2

The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: Q08289
Gene: CACNB2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

30. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-3

The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: P54284
Gene: CACNB3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

31. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-4

The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: O00305
Gene: CACNB4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

32. Voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B

Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1B gives rise to N-type calcium currents. N-type calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group and are blocked by omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to dihydropyridines (DHP), and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing alpha-1B subunit may play a role in directed migration of immature neurons.

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: Q00975
Gene: CACNA1B
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

33. Voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1A

Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1A gives rise to P and/or Q-type calcium currents. P/Q-type calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group and are blocked by the funnel toxin (Ftx) and by the omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). They are however insensitive to dihydropyridines (DHP), and omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA).

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: O00555
Gene: CACNA1A
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

34. Voltage-dependent R-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1E

Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1E gives rise to R-type calcium currents. R-type calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group and are blocked by nickel, and partially by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to dihydropyridines (DHP), omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA), and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing alpha-1E subunit could be involved in the modulation of firing patterns of neurons which is important for information processing.

Cobalt blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels, possibly impairing neurotransmission. (A100)
UniProt ID: Q15878
Gene: CACNA1E
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • A100 — Castelli L, Tanzi F, Taglietti V, Magistretti J: Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ modify the gating kinetics of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in rat palaeocortical neurons. J Membr Biol. 2003 Oct 1;195(3):121-36. [14724759 ]

35. Cytokine receptor common subunit beta

High affinity receptor for interleukin-3, interleukin-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

Radioactive cobalt damages DNA, RNA, and lipids through ionizing events. (L29)
UniProt ID: P32927
Gene: CSF2RB
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L29 — ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2004). Toxicological profile for cobalt. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]