Record Information
Version 1.0
Creation Date 2009-03-06 11:57:54 -0700
Update Date 2013-04-25 02:32:25 -0600
Accession Number T3D0004
Identification
Common Name Vinyl chloride
Description Vinyl chloride is a man-made organic compound, formed when other substances such as trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene are broken down. In its monomer form it is acutely hazardous, thus it is primarily used for the production of polymers. At room temperature it is a flammable, colorless gas with a sweet odor, but it is easily condensed and usually stored as a liquid. (R010)
Compound Type
  • Organic Compound
  • Industrial Precursor/Intermediate
  • Organochloride
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 1-Chloroethylene
  2. Armodour
  3. Aron TS 700
  4. Atactic poly(vinyl chloride)
  5. Bakelite
  6. Boltaron
  7. Carina
  8. Chlorethene
  9. Chlorethylene
  10. vinyl chloride
  11. Chloroethene
  12. Chloroethylene
  13. Chloroethylene homopolymerise [french]
  14. Chlorure de vinyle [french]
  15. Cloroetileno
  16. Cloruro de vinilo
  17. Cloruro di vinile [italian]
  18. Corvic 55/9
  19. Dacovin
  20. Darvic 110
  21. Dynadur
  22. Ekavyl SD 2
  23. chloro-ethene homopolymer
  24. Ethylene monochloride
  25. chloro-ethylene,
  26. chloro-ethylene polymer
  27. Expanded polyvinyl chloride
  28. Flocor
  29. GEON 51
  30. Genotherm
  31. Halvic 223
  32. Hostalit
  33. Monochloroethene
  34. Monochloroethylene
  35. Monovinyl chloride
  36. Poly(vinyl chloride)
  37. Poly(vinyl chloride) carboxylated
  38. Poly(vinyl chloride-co-acrylic Acid)
  39. Polyvinyl chloride
  40. Polyvinyl chloride resin
  41. Polyvinylchloride
  42. Polyvinylchloride latex
  43. Resinite 90
  44. Trovidur
  45. Vinile (cloruro di) [italian]
  46. Vinyl c
  47. Vinyl c monomer
  48. Vinyl chloride
  49. Vinyl chloride monomer
  50. Vinyl chloride inhibited
  51. Vinyl chlorine
  52. Vinylchlorid [german]
  53. Vinylchloride
  54. Vinyle(chlorure de) [french]
  55. Winylu chlorek [polish]
Chemical Formula C2H3Cl
Average Molecular Weight 62.498
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 61.992327803
Chemical IUPAC Name
vinyl chloride
CAS Registry Number 75-01-4
SMILES
ClC=C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C2H3Cl/c1-2-3/h2H,1H2
InChI Key InChIKey=BZHJMEDXRYGGRV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Organic Halides
Class Organochlorides
Sub Class Not Available
Direct Parent Organochlorides
Alternative Parents
  • Acyclic Alkenes
Molecular Framework Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
Substituents Not Available
External Descriptors
  • chloroethenes(ChEBI)
  • monohaloethene(ChEBI)
  • a small molecule(Cyc)
DrugBank ID Not Available
PubChem Compound ID 6338
KEGG ID C06793
UniProt ID Not Available
OMIM ID Not Available
ChEBI ID 28509
BioCyc ID 11-DCE
CTD ID D014752
Stitch ID Vinyl chloride
PDB ID Not Available
ACToR ID 1466
Wikipedia Link Not Available
Physical Properties
Appearance Colorless gas, usually stored as a liquid.
Melting Point -153.7 C
Solubility 8.8 mg/mL at 25 °C [DELASSUS,PT & SCHMIDT,DD (1981)]
Predicted LogP 1.4240064436666666
Toxicity Profile
Route of Exposure Oral (R010) ; inhalation (R010) ; dermal (R010)
Mechanism of Action Vinyl chloride poisoning exhibits many of the characteristics of autoimmune diseases. This is believed to be the result of a reactive vinyl chloride intermediate metabolite binding to an immunoglobulin, altering the protein and initiating an immune response. The metabolites of vinyl chloride, especially choloroethylene oxide, are mutagenic and act by covalently binding to DNA. This produces cyclic etheno-adducts, which cause base-pair transitions during transcription and DNA crosslinks. Metabolites also may cause oxidative stress and affecting tumor supressor genes, as vinyl chloride has been known to produce specific mutations in the p53 and Ki-ras genes. Vinyl chloride metabolites are also believed to exert toxic effects in the liver by covalently binding to liver proteins, resulting in cellular toxicity. (R010, R202)
Metabolism Vinyl chloride absorbed primarily via inhalation or ingestion is rapidly distributed throughout the body. It is metabolized mainly in the liver by cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases, first into chloroethylene oxide, then into chloroacetaldehyde, which are the main toxic metabolites. Chloroacetaldehyde is further converted into chloroethanol and monochloroacetic acid. Detoxification occurs in conjunction with glutathione, producing mainly thiodiglycolic acid, which is excreted in the urine. At high doses vinyl chloride may also be excreted by exhalation. (R010, R011)
Toxicity Values LD50: 500 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (R265)
Lethal Dose 120 000 ppm for an adult human. (R268)
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification) 1, carcinogenic to humans. (R264)
Uses/Sources Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC). PVC is used in a variety of plastic products, such as pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Small amounts of vinyl chloride is sometimes used in furniture and automobile upholstery, wall coverings, housewares, and automotive parts. (R010)
Minimum Risk Level Acute Inhalation: 0.5 ppm (R260) Intermediate Inhalation: 0.03 ppm (R260) Chronic Oral: 0.003 mg/kg/day (R260)
Health Effects Exposure to vinyl chloride results in liver damage, nerve damage, and immune reactions, as well as depression of the central nervous system and cardiac arrhythmias. Long term exposure may result in damage to the sperm and testes of males. Vinyl chloride is also a known carcinogen. (R010)
Symptoms Symptoms of acute vinyl chloride exposure include headache, nausea, dizziness, and drowsiness, possibly resulting in loss of conciousness, coma or cardiac arrhythmias at higher levels. Chronic exposure can lead to lung and kidney irritation, inhibition of bloodclotting, numbness and pain in the fingers, memory loss, and sleep disurbances. (R010)
Treatment Vinyl chloride has no tested antidote. Poisoning is usually handled by preventing further exposure and treating the observed symptoms. (R010)
References
General References
  • R010 — ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2006). Toxicological profile for vinyl chloride. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  • R202 — Marion MJ: Critical genes as early warning signs: example of vinyl chloride. Toxicol Lett. 1998 Dec 28;102-103:603-7. [10022320 ]
  • R011 — ECETOC (1988). The mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride: a historical review and assessment. Technical report no. 31, Brussels, ECETOC.
  • R265 — US Environmental Protection Agency (2001). OHM/TADS: Oil and Hazardous Materials/Technical Assistance Data System. Washington, DC (Internet Version). Edition expires 2001. Greenwood Village, CO: Thomson Healthcare Inc.
  • R268 — ILO (1998). Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 4th ed. Vol 1-4. (CD ROM Version). Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organization.
  • R264 — International Agency for Research on Cancer (2009). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  • R260 — ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]

Targets

1. Ig gamma-1 chain C region

Vinyl chloride poisoning exhibits many of the characteristics of autoimmune diseases. This is believed to be the result of a reactive vinyl chloride intermediate metabolite binding to an immunoglobulin G (IgG), altering the protein and initiating an immune response. (R010)
UniProt ID: P01857
Gene: IGHG1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

2. Ig gamma-2 chain C region

Vinyl chloride poisoning exhibits many of the characteristics of autoimmune diseases. This is believed to be the result of a reactive vinyl chloride intermediate metabolite binding to an immunoglobulin G (IgG), altering the protein and initiating an immune response. (R010)
UniProt ID: P01859
Gene: IGHG2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

3. Ig gamma-3 chain C region

Vinyl chloride poisoning exhibits many of the characteristics of autoimmune diseases. This is believed to be the result of a reactive vinyl chloride intermediate metabolite binding to an immunoglobulin G (IgG), altering the protein and initiating an immune response. (R010)
UniProt ID: P01860
Gene: IGHG3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

4. Ig gamma-4 chain C region

Vinyl chloride poisoning exhibits many of the characteristics of autoimmune diseases. This is believed to be the result of a reactive vinyl chloride intermediate metabolite binding to an immunoglobulin G (IgG), altering the protein and initiating an immune response. (R010)
UniProt ID: P01861
Gene: IGHG4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

5. Cytokine receptor common subunit beta

High affinity receptor for interleukin-3, interleukin-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

The metabolites of vinyl chloride, especially choloroethylene oxide, are mutagenic and act by covalently binding to DNA. This produces cyclic etheno-adducts, which cause base-pair transitions during transcription and DNA crosslinks. (R010)
UniProt ID: P32927
Gene: CSF2RB
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

6. Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P98194
Gene: ATP2C1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

7. Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 2

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium (By similarity).

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: O75185
Gene: ATP2C2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

8. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P14867
Gene: GABRA1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

9. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P47869
Gene: GABRA2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

10. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P34903
Gene: GABRA3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

11. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P48169
Gene: GABRA4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

12. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P31644
Gene: GABRA5
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

13. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q16445
Gene: GABRA6
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

14. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P18505
Gene: GABRB1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

15. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P47870
Gene: GABRB2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

16. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P28472
Gene: GABRB3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

17. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: O14764
Gene: GABRD
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

18. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P78334
Gene: GABRE
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

19. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q8N1C3
Gene: GABRG1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

20. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P18507
Gene: GABRG2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

21. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q99928
Gene: GABRG3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

22. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: O00591
Gene: GABRP
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

23. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P24046
Gene: GABRR1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

24. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P28476
Gene: GABRR2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

25. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel (By similarity).

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: A8MPY1
Gene: GABRR3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

26. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q9UN88
Gene: GABRQ
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

27. Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 1

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P20020
Gene: ATP2B1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

28. Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 2

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q01814
Gene: ATP2B2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

29. Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 3

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q16720
Gene: ATP2B3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

30. Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 4

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P23634
Gene: ATP2B4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

31. Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: O14983
Gene: ATP2A1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

32. Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Isoform 2 is involved in the regulation of the contraction/relaxation cycle.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P16615
Gene: ATP2A2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

33. Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 3

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium. Transports calcium ions from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q93084
Gene: ATP2A3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

34. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit gamma

May be involved in forming the receptor site for cardiac glycoside binding or may modulate the transport function of the sodium ATPase.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P54710
Gene: FXYD2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

35. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1

This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P05023
Gene: ATP1A1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

36. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-2

This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P50993
Gene: ATP1A2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

37. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-3

This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P13637
Gene: ATP1A3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

38. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-4

This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients. Plays a role in sperm motility.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q13733
Gene: ATP1A4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

39. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-1

This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P05026
Gene: ATP1B1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

40. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-2

This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-2 subunit is not known.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P14415
Gene: ATP1B2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

41. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-3

This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-3 subunit is not known.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P54709
Gene: ATP1B3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

42. Estrogen receptor

Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.

Causes endocrine disruption in humans by binding to and inhibiting the estrogen receptor. (S301)
UniProt ID: P03372
Gene: ESR1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

43. Estrogen receptor beta

Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner. Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.

Causes endocrine disruption in humans by binding to and inhibiting the estrogen receptor. (S301)
UniProt ID: Q92731
Gene: ESR2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References: