Record Information
Version 1.0
Creation Date 2009-07-07 15:54:32 -0600
Update Date 2013-04-25 02:43:59 -0600
Accession Number T3D2659
Identification
Common Name kappa-Conotoxin (Conus purpurascens)
Description Conotoxins are neurotoxic peptides from the venom of the marine cone snail (genus Conus). kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (S536)
Compound Type
  • Organic Compound
  • Snail Toxin
  • Protein
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms Not Available
Chemical Formula Not Available
Average Molecular Weight Not Available
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
Traditional IUPAC Name
Not Available
CAS Registry Number Not Available
SMILES
Not Available
InChI Identifier
Not Available
InChI Key Not Available
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Not Available
Super Class Not Available
Class Not Available
Sub Class Not Available
Direct Parent Not Available
Alternative Parents Not Available
Molecular Framework Not Available
Substituents Not Available
External Descriptors Not Available
Biological Properties
Status Unknown/Not Detected
Origin Not Available
Cellular Locations Not Available
Biofluid Locations Not Available
Tissue Locations Not Available
Pathways Not Available
Physical Properties
State Not Available
Appearance Not Available
Experimental Properties
Property Value
Melting Point Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available
Solubility Not Available
LogP Not Available
Predicted Properties Not Available
Spectra
Spectra Not Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of Exposure Injection (sting/bite) (W464)
Mechanism of Toxicity kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (S536)
Metabolism Not Available
Toxicity Values Not Available
Lethal Dose Not Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification) Not Available
Uses/Sources Conotoxins are neurotoxic peptides from the venom of the marine cone snail (genus Conus). (S536)
Minimum Risk Level Not Available
Health Effects Conotoxins are neurotoxic. (S536)
Symptoms Cone snail stings can cause intense pain, swelling, numbness and tingling. Symptoms can start immediately or can be delayed in onset for days. Severe cases involve muscle paralysis, changes in vision and respiratory failure that can lead to death. (W469)
Treatment Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank ID Not Available
HMDB ID Not Available
PubChem Compound ID Not Available
ChEMBL ID Not Available
ChemSpider ID Not Available
KEGG ID Not Available
UniProt ID P56633
OMIM ID Not Available
ChEBI ID Not Available
BioCyc ID Not Available
CTD ID Not Available
Stitch ID Conotoxin, kappa-
PDB ID Not Available
ACToR ID Not Available
Wikipedia Link Not Available
References
General References
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]
  • L1815 — Wikipedia. Mollusca. Last Updated 5 August 2009. [Link]
  • L1818 — Wikipedia. Cone snail. Last Updated 29 July 2009. [Link]

Targets

1. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1

Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: Q09470
Gene: KCNA1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

2. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 2

Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: P16389
Gene: KCNA2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

3. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 3

Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: P22001
Gene: KCNA3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

4. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 4

Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: P22459
Gene: KCNA4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

5. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 5

Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. This channel displays rapid activation and slow inactivation. May play a role in regulating the secretion of insulin in normal pancreatic islets. Isoform 2 exhibits a voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation and an excessive cumulative inactivation.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: P22460
Gene: KCNA5
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

6. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 6

Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: P17658
Gene: KCNA6
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

7. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 7

Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient (By similarity).

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: Q96RP8
Gene: KCNA7
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

8. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 10

Mediates voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. The channel activity is up-regulated by cAMP.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: Q16322
Gene: KCNA10
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

9. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily B member 1

Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Channels open or close in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, letting potassium ions pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: Q14721
Gene: KCNB1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

10. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily B member 2

Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Channels open or close in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, letting potassium ions pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: Q92953
Gene: KCNB2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

11. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily C member 1

Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: P48547
Gene: KCNC1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

12. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily C member 2

Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. Channel properties are modulated by subunit assembly (By similarity).

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: Q96PR1
Gene: KCNC2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

13. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily C member 3

This protein mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: Q14003
Gene: KCNC3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

14. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily C member 4

This protein mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: Q03721
Gene: KCNC4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

15. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 1

Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated rapidly inactivating A-type potassium channels. May contribute to I(To) current in heart and I(Sa) current in neurons. Channel properties are modulated by interactions with other alpha subunits and with regulatory subunits.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: Q9NSA2
Gene: KCND1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

16. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 2

Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated rapidly inactivating A-type potassium channels. May contribute to I(To) current in heart and I(Sa) current in neurons. Channel properties are modulated by interactions with other alpha subunits and with regulatory subunits.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: Q9NZV8
Gene: KCND2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

17. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 3

Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated rapidly inactivating A-type potassium channels. May contribute to I(To) current in heart and I(Sa) current in neurons. Channel properties are modulated by interactions with other alpha subunits and with regulatory subunits.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: Q9UK17
Gene: KCND3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

18. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 1

Probably important in cardiac repolarization. Associates with KCNE1 (MinK) to form the I(Ks) cardiac potassium current. Elicits a rapidly activating, potassium-selective outward current. Muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M strongly suppresses KCNQ1/KCNE1 current in CHO cells in which cloned KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels were coexpressed with M1 muscarinic receptors. May associate also with KCNE3 (MiRP2) to form the potassium channel that is important for cyclic AMP-stimulated intestinal secretion of chloride ions, which is reduced in cystic fibrosis and pathologically stimulated in cholera and other forms of secretory diarrhea.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: P51787
Gene: KCNQ1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

19. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 2

Probably important in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Associates with KCNQ3 to form a potassium channel with essentially identical properties to the channel underlying the native M-current, a slowly activating and deactivating potassium conductance which plays a critical role in determining the subthreshold electrical excitability of neurons as well as the responsiveness to synaptic inputs. KCNQ2/KCNQ3 current is blocked by linopirdine and XE991, and activated by the anticonvulsant retigabine. Muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M strongly suppress KCNQ2/KCNQ3 current in cells in which cloned KCNQ2/KCNQ3 channels were coexpressed with M1 muscarinic receptors.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: O43526
Gene: KCNQ2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

20. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 3

Probably important in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Associates with KCNQ2 or KCNQ5 to form a potassium channel with essentially identical properties to the channel underlying the native M-current, a slowly activating and deactivating potassium conductance which plays a critical role in determining the subthreshold electrical excitability of neurons as well as the responsiveness to synaptic inputs.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: O43525
Gene: KCNQ3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

21. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 4

Probably important in the regulation of neuronal excitability. May underlie a potassium current involved in regulating the excitability of sensory cells of the cochlea. KCNQ4 channels are blocked by linopirdin, XE991 and bepridil, whereas clofilium is without significant effect. Muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M strongly suppress KCNQ4 current in CHO cells in which cloned KCNQ4 channels were coexpressed with M1 muscarinic receptors.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: P56696
Gene: KCNQ4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

22. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 5

Probably important in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Associates with KCNQ3 to form a potassium channel which contributes to M-type current, a slowly activating and deactivating potassium conductance which plays a critical role in determining the subthreshold electrical excitability of neurons. May contribute, with other potassium channels, to the molecular diversity of a heterogeneous population of M-channels, varying in kinetic and pharmacological properties, which underlie this physiologically important current. Insensitive to tetraethylammonium, but inhibited by barium, linopirdine and XE991. Activated by niflumic acid and the anticonvulsant retigabine. Muscarine suppresses KCNQ5 current in Xenopus oocytes in which cloned KCNQ5 channels were coexpressed with M(1) muscarinic receptors.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: Q9NR82
Gene: KCNQ5
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]

23. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 1

Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated non-inactivating delayed rectifier potassium channel. Channel properties may be modulated by cAMP and subunit assembly. Mediates IK(NI) current in myoblasts.

kappa-Conotoxins inhibit potassium channels. (L1107)
UniProt ID: O95259
Gene: KCNH1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:
  • L1107 — Wikipedia. Conotoxin. Last Updated 2 June 2009. [Link]