Record Information
Version 1.0
Creation Date 2009-03-06 11:58:06 -0700
Update Date 2013-04-25 02:32:54 -0600
Accession Number T3D0116
Identification
Common Name 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene
Description 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene is an organochloride aromatic compound and one of the three isomeric forms of trichlorobenzene. Trichlorobenzene is used as a solvent. (R428)
Compound Type
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Solvent
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 1,2, 3-Trichlorobenzene
  2. 1,2,3-Trichlorbenzol
  3. 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene
  4. 1,2,6-Trichlorobenzene
  5. Trichlorbenzene
  6. Trichlorobencenos [spanish]
  7. Trichlorobenzene
  8. Trichlorobenzenes
  9. Vic-trichlorobenzene
Chemical Formula Not Available
Average Molecular Weight Not Available
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight Not Available
Chemical IUPAC Name
Not Available
CAS Registry Number 87-61-6
SMILES
Not Available
InChI Identifier
Not Available
InChI Key Not Available
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Not Available
Super Class Not Available
Class Not Available
Sub Class Not Available
Direct Parent Not Available
Alternative Parents Not Available
Molecular Framework Not Available
Substituents Not Available
External Descriptors Not Available
DrugBank ID Not Available
PubChem Compound ID 6895
KEGG ID C14408
UniProt ID Not Available
OMIM ID Not Available
ChEBI ID 35289
BioCyc ID CPD-1125
CTD ID Not Available
Stitch ID 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene
PDB ID Not Available
ACToR ID 3345
Wikipedia Link Not Available
Physical Properties
Appearance White crystals.
Melting Point 53.5 C
Solubility 0.018 mg/mL at 25 °C [CHIOU,CT et al. (1986)]
Predicted LogP Not Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of Exposure Oral (R430) ; inhalation (R430) ; dermal (R430)
Mechanism of Action Trichlorobenzene may uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, inducing potassium ion release and inhibiting respiratory control. It's metabolites may covalently bind to cellular proteins and alkylate DNA. (R432, R433)
Metabolism Trichlorobenzene is absorbed via oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. It is believed to be metabolized via cytochrome p-450 enzymes into metabolites that include phenols, mercapturic acid, and catechols.(R430)
Toxicity Values LD50: 756 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (R285)
Lethal Dose Not Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification) Not Available
Uses/Sources Trichlorobenzene is used as a solvent in chemical manufacturing, as well as in dyes, dielectric fluid, synthetic transformer oils, lubricants, heat-transfer medium, and insecticides. (R431)
Minimum Risk Level Not Available
Health Effects High levels of trichlorobenzene may damage the liver, kidney, and thyroid. (R429)
Symptoms Trichlorobenzene irritates the eyes and respiratory tract. (R285)
Treatment Not Available
References
General References
  • R428 — Wikipedia. Trichlorobenzene. Last Updated 30 August 2007. [Link]
  • R430 — USEPA (1980). Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Chlorinated Benzenes. EPA 440/5-80-028.
  • R432 — Ogata M, Hasegawa T, Mori T, Meguro T. Effects of chlorinated mono aromatic hydrocarbons on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in rats liver. Ind Health. 1981;19(1):31-6. [7216839 ]
  • R433 — den Besten C, Smink MC, de Vries EJ, van Bladeren PJ: Metabolic activation of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene by rat liver microsomes: a major role for quinone metabolites. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1991 Apr;108(2):223-33. [2017752 ]
  • R285 — American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. (1991). Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
  • R431 — Lewis RJ Sr. (ed) (1993). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 12th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Rheinhold Co.
  • R429 — Cote M, Chu I, Villeneuve DC, Secours VE, Valli VE: Trichlorobenzenes: results of a thirteen week feeding study in the rat. Drug Chem Toxicol. 1988;11(1):11-28. [3378508 ]

Targets

1. Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P98194
Gene: ATP2C1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

2. Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 2

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium (By similarity).

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: O75185
Gene: ATP2C2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

3. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P14867
Gene: GABRA1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

4. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P47869
Gene: GABRA2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

5. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P34903
Gene: GABRA3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

6. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P48169
Gene: GABRA4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

7. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P31644
Gene: GABRA5
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

8. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q16445
Gene: GABRA6
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

9. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P18505
Gene: GABRB1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

10. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P47870
Gene: GABRB2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

11. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P28472
Gene: GABRB3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

12. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: O14764
Gene: GABRD
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

13. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P78334
Gene: GABRE
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

14. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q8N1C3
Gene: GABRG1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

15. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P18507
Gene: GABRG2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

16. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q99928
Gene: GABRG3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

17. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: O00591
Gene: GABRP
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

18. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P24046
Gene: GABRR1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

19. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P28476
Gene: GABRR2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

20. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel (By similarity).

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: A8MPY1
Gene: GABRR3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

21. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q9UN88
Gene: GABRQ
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

22. Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 1

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P20020
Gene: ATP2B1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

23. Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 2

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q01814
Gene: ATP2B2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

24. Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 3

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q16720
Gene: ATP2B3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

25. Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 4

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P23634
Gene: ATP2B4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

26. Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: O14983
Gene: ATP2A1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

27. Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Isoform 2 is involved in the regulation of the contraction/relaxation cycle.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P16615
Gene: ATP2A2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

28. Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 3

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium. Transports calcium ions from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q93084
Gene: ATP2A3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

29. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit gamma

May be involved in forming the receptor site for cardiac glycoside binding or may modulate the transport function of the sodium ATPase.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P54710
Gene: FXYD2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

30. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1

This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P05023
Gene: ATP1A1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

31. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-2

This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P50993
Gene: ATP1A2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

32. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-3

This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P13637
Gene: ATP1A3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

33. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-4

This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients. Plays a role in sperm motility.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q13733
Gene: ATP1A4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

34. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-1

This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P05026
Gene: ATP1B1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

35. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-2

This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-2 subunit is not known.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P14415
Gene: ATP1B2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

36. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-3

This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-3 subunit is not known.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P54709
Gene: ATP1B3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

37. Estrogen receptor

Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.

Causes endocrine disruption in humans by binding to and inhibiting the estrogen receptor. (S301)
UniProt ID: P03372
Gene: ESR1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

38. Estrogen receptor beta

Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner. Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.

Causes endocrine disruption in humans by binding to and inhibiting the estrogen receptor. (S301)
UniProt ID: Q92731
Gene: ESR2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References: