Record Information
Version 1.0
Creation Date 2009-03-06 11:57:55 -0700
Update Date 2013-04-25 02:32:27 -0600
Accession Number T3D0012
Identification
Common Name P,P'-DDT
Description DDT, P,P'- is an isomer of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, an organochlorine insecticide. It is the major component of commercial mixtures of DDT. DDT was once a widely used pesticide, but today its agricultural use has been banned worldwide due to its toxicity and tendency to bioaccumulate. However, it still has limited use in disease vector control. (R152)
Compound Type
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Pesticide
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 1, 1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(2,4'-dichlorophenyl)ethane
  2. 1, 1-Dichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane
  3. 1,1'-(2,2,2-Trichloroethylidene)bis(4-chlorobenzene)
  4. 1,1'-(2,2,2-trichloroethane-1,1-diyl)bis(4-chlorobenzene)
  5. 1,1'-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene)bis[4-chlorobenzene]
  6. 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane
  7. 1,1,1-Trichloor-2,2-bis(4-chloor fenyl)-ethaan [Dutch]
  8. 1,1,1-Trichlor-2,2-bis(4-chlor-phenyl)-aethan [German]
  9. 1,1,1-Trichloro-2, 2-bis(4,4'-dichlorodiphenyl)ethane
  10. 1,1,1-Trichloro-2, 2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethane
  11. 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(4,4'-dichlorodiphenyl)ethane
  12. 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane
  13. 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis-(4'-chlorophenyl)ethane
  14. 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis-(4'-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT)
  15. 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane
  16. 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethane
  17. 1,1,1-Trichlorobis(chlorophenyl)ethane
  18. 1,1,1-Tricloro-2,2-bis(4-cloro-fenyl)-etano [Italian]
  19. 1,1,1-trichloro-2-2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane
  20. 1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane
  21. 1,1-Bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane
  22. 1,1-Bis-(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane
  23. 1,1-bis(p-Chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichIoroethane
  24. 1-Chloro-4-[2,2,2-trichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene
  25. 2,2,2-Trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane
  26. 2,2,2-trichlorobis(4-chloroph enyl)ethane
  27. 2,2,2-trichlorobis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane
  28. 2,2-Bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1, 1-trichloroethane
  29. 2,2-Bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane
  30. 2-(o-Chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane
  31. 4,4'-DDT solution
  32. 4,4'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
  33. Aavero-extra
  34. Agritan
  35. Anofex
  36. Arkotine
  37. Azotox
  38. Azotox M 33
  39. Azotox M-33
  40. 1,1'-(2,2,2-Trichloroethylidene)bis(4-chloro)-Benzene
  41. 1,1'-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene)bis(4-chloro-Benzene
  42. Benzochloryl
  43. Bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane
  44. Bosan supra
  45. Bovidermol
  46. Chlofenotan
  47. Chlorophenothan
  48. Chlorophenothane
  49. Chlorophenothanum
  50. Chlorophenothanum technicum
  51. Chlorophenotoxum
  52. Chlorphenotane
  53. Chlorphenothan
  54. Chlorphenotoxum
  55. Citox
  56. Clofenotan
  57. Clofenotane
  58. Clofenotane (inn)
  59. Clofenotane technique
  60. Clofenotano [inn-spanish]
  61. Clofenotanum [inn-latin]
  62. Dedelo
  63. Deoval
  64. Detox (pesticide)
  65. Detoxan
  66. Dibovan
  67. Dibovin
  68. Dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane
  69. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
  70. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)
  71. Dicophane
  72. Dicophaner
  73. Didigam
  74. Didimac
  75. Diphenyltrichloroethane
  76. Dnsbp
  77. Dodat
  78. Dykol
  79. Estonate
  80. 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-Ethane
  81. 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-Ethane
  82. 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-Ethane
  83. 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-Ethane
  84. 2-(o-Chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-Ethane
  85. Genitox
  86. Gesafid
  87. Gesapon
  88. Gesarex
  89. Gesarol
  90. Geusapon
  91. Guesapon
  92. Guesarol
  93. Gyron
  94. Havero-extra
  95. Hildit
  96. Ivoran
  97. Ixodex
  98. Klorfenoton [swedish pharmacopoeia]
  99. Kopsol
  100. Mutoxan
  101. Mutoxin
  102. Neocid (van)
  103. Neocidol
  104. Neocidol solid
  105. P,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
  106. P,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)
  107. P,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloromethylmethane
  108. Parachlorocidum
  109. Pentachlorin
  110. Pentech
  111. Penticide
  112. Penticidum
  113. Ppzeidan
  114. Rukseam
  115. Santobane
  116. Tafidex
  117. Tbisc-ethane
  118. Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane
  119. Trichlorobis(4'-chlorophenyl)ethane
  120. Trichlorobis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane
  121. Zeidane
  122. Zerdane
  123. Zithiol
  124. p,p'-DDT-p,p' -Dichloro-1,1-diphenyl-2,2,2-trichloroethane
  125. p,p'-DDT-p,p'-Dichloro-1,1-diphenyl-2,2,2-trichloroethane
Chemical Formula C14H9Cl5
Average Molecular Weight 354.486
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 351.914688823
Chemical IUPAC Name
detox
CAS Registry Number 50-29-3
SMILES
ClC1=CC=C(C=C1)C(C1=CC=C(Cl)C=C1)C(Cl)(Cl)Cl
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C14H9Cl5/c15-11-5-1-9(2-6-11)13(14(17,18)19)10-3-7-12(16)8-4-10/h1-8,13H
InChI Key InChIKey=YVGGHNCTFXOJCH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Benzenoids
Class Benzene and Substituted Derivatives
Sub Class Diphenylmethanes
Direct Parent Diphenylmethanes
Alternative Parents
  • Chlorobenzenes
  • Aryl Chlorides
Molecular Framework Aromatic Homopolycyclic Compounds
Substituents
  • chlorobenzene
  • aryl chloride
  • organic halide
  • organochloride
External Descriptors
  • organochlorine insecticide(ChEBI)
  • benzenoid aromatic compound(ChEBI)
  • chlorophenylethane(ChEBI)
  • Organochlorine pesticides(KEGG)
  • Organochlorine insecticides(KEGG)
  • an insecticide(Cyc)
DrugBank ID Not Available
PubChem Compound ID 3036
KEGG ID C04623
UniProt ID Not Available
OMIM ID Not Available
ChEBI ID 16130
BioCyc ID CPD-1125
CTD ID D003634
Stitch ID DDT, P,P'-
PDB ID Not Available
ACToR ID 381
Wikipedia Link Not Available
Physical Properties
Appearance White solid.
Melting Point 108.5 C
Solubility 5.5e-06 mg/mL at 25 °C [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)]
Predicted LogP 6.4575023993333325
Toxicity Profile
Route of Exposure Oral (R153)
Mechanism of Action DDT toxicity occurs via at least four mechanisms, possibly all functioning simultaneously. DDT reduces potassium transport across the membrane. DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. DDT inhibits neuronal adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases), particularly Na+K+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase which play vital roles in neuronal repolarization. DDT also inhibits the ability of calmodulin, a calcium mediator in nerves, to transport calcium ions that are essential for the release of neurotransmitters. All these inhibited functions reduce the rate of depolarization and increase the sensitivity of neurons to small stimuli that would not elicit a response in a fully depolarized neuron. DDT is also believed to adversely affect the reproductive system by mimicking endogenous hormones and binding to the estrogen and adrogen receptors. (R029, R153)
Metabolism DDT is absorbed in the stomach and intestine, after which it enters the lymphatic system and is carried throughout the body and incorporated into fatty tissues. Metabolism of DDT occurs mainly via cytochrome P-450 enzymes in the liver and kidney, where it undergoes reductive dechlorination to DDD (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) and DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene). These compounds are further degraded into additional metabolites, mainly DDA (bis(p-chlorophenyl) acetic acid), which are excreted in the urine. (R153)
Toxicity Values LD50: 87 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (R275) LD50: 1931 mg/kg (Dermal, Rat) (R275) LD50: 1500 mg/kg (Subcutaneous, Rat) (R275)
Lethal Dose Not Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification) 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans. (R264)
Uses/Sources DDT is used as a pesticide and in disease vector control. (R152)
Minimum Risk Level Acute Oral: 0.0005 mg/kg/day (R260) Intermediate Oral: 0.0005 mg/kg/day (R260)
Health Effects Exposure to DDT causes loss of weight and anorexia. DDT poisoning affects CNS function in humans, but pathologic changes are observed in the liver and reproductive organs. Hypertrophy of hepatocytes and subcellular organelles such as mitochondria, proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, centrolobular necrosis after exposure to high concentrations, and an increase in the incidence of hepatic tumors have been noted. (R029)
Symptoms Acute signs of DDT poisoning include paresthesia after oral ingestion. Studies have shown that a mammal poisoned with DDT-type agents displays periodic persistent tremoring and/or convulsive seizures that are suggestive of repetitive discharges in neurons. These repetitive tremors and seizures can be initiated by tactile and auditory stimuli. (R029)
Treatment Treatment of DDT exposure should be primarily directed towards decontamination and supportive care, as there is no specific antidote. The use of gastric lavage and activated charcoal for large ingestions may be effective. (R274)
References
General References
  • R152 — Wikipedia. DDT. Last Updated 2 April 2009. [Link]
  • R153 — ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2005). Toxicological profile for DDT, DDE, and DDD. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  • R029 — Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  • R275 — The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory of Oxford University (2005). Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for DDT. [Link]
  • R264 — International Agency for Research on Cancer (2009). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  • R260 — ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  • R274 — International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1992). Poison Information Monograph for DDT. [Link]

Targets

1. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1

This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P05023
Gene: ATP1A1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

2. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-2

This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P50993
Gene: ATP1A2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

3. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-3

This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P13637
Gene: ATP1A3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

4. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-4

This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients. Plays a role in sperm motility.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q13733
Gene: ATP1A4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

5. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-1

This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P05026
Gene: ATP1B1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

6. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-2

This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-2 subunit is not known.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P14415
Gene: ATP1B2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

7. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-3

This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-3 subunit is not known.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P54709
Gene: ATP1B3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

8. Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit gamma

May be involved in forming the receptor site for cardiac glycoside binding or may modulate the transport function of the sodium ATPase.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P54710
Gene: FXYD2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

9. Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P98194
Gene: ATP2C1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

10. Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 2

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium (By similarity).

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: O75185
Gene: ATP2C2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

11. Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 1

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P20020
Gene: ATP2B1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

12. Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 2

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q01814
Gene: ATP2B2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

13. Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 3

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q16720
Gene: ATP2B3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

14. Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 4

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P23634
Gene: ATP2B4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

15. Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: O14983
Gene: ATP2A1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

16. Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Isoform 2 is involved in the regulation of the contraction/relaxation cycle.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P16615
Gene: ATP2A2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

17. Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 3

This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium. Transports calcium ions from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.

This organochloride inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase and Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase, which are essential for the transport of calcium across membranes. This results in the accumulation of intracellular free calcium ions, which promotes release of neurotransmitters from storage vesicles, the subsequent depolarization of adjacent neurons, and the propagation of stimuli throughout the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q93084
Gene: ATP2A3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

18. Calmodulin

Calmodulin mediates the control of a large number of enzymes, ion channels and other proteins by Ca(2+). Among the enzymes to be stimulated by the calmodulin-Ca(2+) complex are a number of protein kinases and phosphatases. Together with CEP110 and centrin, is involved in a genetic pathway that regulates the centrosome cycle and progression through cytokinesis.

DDT inhibits the ability of calmodulin, a calcium mediator in nerves, to transport calcium ions that are essential for the release of neurotransmitters. This reduces the rate of depolarization and increases the sensitivity of neurons to small stimuli that would not elicit a response in a fully depolarized neuron. (R029)
UniProt ID: P62158
Gene: CALM1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

19. Estrogen receptor

Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.

Causes endocrine disruption in humans by binding to and inhibiting the estrogen receptor. (S301)
UniProt ID: P03372
Gene: ESR1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

20. Estrogen receptor beta

Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner. Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.

Causes endocrine disruption in humans by binding to and inhibiting the estrogen receptor. (S301)
UniProt ID: Q92731
Gene: ESR2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

21. Androgen receptor

Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.

DDT is also believed to adversely affect the reproductive system by mimicking endogenous hormones and binding to the estrogen and adrogen receptors. (R153)
UniProt ID: P10275
Gene: AR
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

22. Potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 2

Hyperpolarization-activated ion channel exhibiting weak selectivity for potassium over sodium ions. Contributes to the native pacemaker currents in heart (If) and in neurons (Ih). Can also transport ammonium in the distal nephron. Produces a large instantaneous current. Activated by cAMP. Modulated by intracellular chloride ions and pH; acidic pH shifts the activation to more negative voltages (By similarity).

DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. (R252)
UniProt ID: Q9UL51
Gene: HCN2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

23. Potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4

Hyperpolarization-activated ion channel with very slow activation and inactivation exhibiting weak selectivity for potassium over sodium ions. May contribute to the native pacemaker currents in heart (If) and in neurons (Ih). Activated by cAMP. May mediate responses to sour stimuli.

DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. (R252)
UniProt ID: Q9Y3Q4
Gene: HCN4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

24. Potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 1

Hyperpolarization-activated ion channel exhibiting weak selectivity for potassium over sodium ions. Contributes to the native pacemaker currents in heart (If) and in neurons (Ih). Activated by cAMP, and at 10-100 times higher concentrations, also by cGMP. May mediate responses to sour stimuli.

DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. (R252)
UniProt ID: O60741
Gene: HCN1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

25. Potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 3

Putative hyperpolarization-activated ion channel exhibiting weak selectivity for potassium over sodium ions (By similarity)

DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. (R252)
UniProt ID: Q9P1Z3
Gene: HCN3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

26. Sodium channel protein type 1 subunit alpha

Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.

DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. (R252)
UniProt ID: P35498
Gene: SCN1A
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

27. Sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha

This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which sodium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel isoform. Its electrophysiological properties vary depending on the type of the associated beta subunits (in vitro). Plays a role in neuropathic pain mechanisms (By similarity).

DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. (R252)
UniProt ID: Q9Y5Y9
Gene: SCN10A
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

28. Sodium channel protein type 11 subunit alpha

This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which sodium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel isoform. Also involved, with the contribution of the receptor tyrosine kinase NTRK2, in rapid BDNF-evoked neuronal depolarization.

DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. (R252)
UniProt ID: Q9UI33
Gene: SCN11A
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

29. Sodium channel protein type 2 subunit alpha

Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.

DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. (R252)
UniProt ID: Q99250
Gene: SCN2A
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

30. Sodium channel protein type 3 subunit alpha

Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.

DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. (R252)
UniProt ID: Q9NY46
Gene: SCN3A
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

31. Sodium channel protein type 4 subunit alpha

This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. This sodium channel may be present in both denervated and innervated skeletal muscle.

DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. (R252)
UniProt ID: P35499
Gene: SCN4A
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

32. Sodium channel protein type 7 subunit alpha

Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.

DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. (R252)
UniProt ID: Q01118
Gene: SCN7A
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

33. Sodium channel protein type 8 subunit alpha

Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. In macrophages and melanoma cells, isoform 5 may participate in the control of podosome and invadopodia formation.

DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. (R252)
UniProt ID: Q9UQD0
Gene: SCN8A
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

34. Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha

This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) channel isoform. This channel is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential. Channel inactivation is regulated by intracellular calcium levels.

DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. (R252)
UniProt ID: Q14524
Gene: SCN5A
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

35. Sodium channel protein type 9 subunit alpha

Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+) channel isoform. Plays a role in pain mechanisms, especially in the development of inflammatory pain (By similarity).

DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. (R252)
UniProt ID: Q15858
Gene: SCN9A
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

36. Sodium channel subunit beta-1

Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-1 can modulate multiple alpha subunit isoforms from brain, skeletal muscle, and heart. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons. Isoform 2: Cell adhesion molecule that plays a critical role in neuronal migration and pathfinding during brain development. Stimulates neurite outgrowth.

DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. (R252)
UniProt ID: Q07699
Gene: SCN1B
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

37. Sodium channel subunit beta-2

Crucial in the assembly, expression, and functional modulation of the heterotrimeric complex of the sodium channel. The subunit beta-2 causes an increase in the plasma membrane surface area and in its folding into microvilli. Interacts with TNR may play a crucial role in clustering and regulation of activity of sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier (By similarity).

DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. (R252)
UniProt ID: O60939
Gene: SCN2B
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

38. Sodium channel subunit beta-3

Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes unique persistent sodium currents. Inactivates the sodium channel opening more slowly than the subunit beta-1. Its association with neurofascin may target the sodium channels to the nodes of Ranvier of developing axons and retain these channels at the nodes in mature myelinated axons (By similarity).

DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. (R252)
UniProt ID: Q9NY72
Gene: SCN3B
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

39. Sodium channel subunit beta-4

Modulates channel gating kinetics. Causes negative shifts in the voltage dependence of activation of certain alpha sodium channels, but does not affect the voltage dependence of inactivation (By similarity).

DDT inhibits the inactivation of voltaged-gated sodium channels. The channels activate (open) normally but are inactivated (closed) slowly, thus interfering with the active transport of sodium out of the nerve axon during repolarization and resulting in a state of hyperexcitability. (R252)
UniProt ID: Q8IWT1
Gene: SCN4B
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

40. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P14867
Gene: GABRA1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

41. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P47869
Gene: GABRA2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

42. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P34903
Gene: GABRA3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

43. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P48169
Gene: GABRA4
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

44. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P31644
Gene: GABRA5
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

45. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q16445
Gene: GABRA6
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

46. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P18505
Gene: GABRB1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

47. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P47870
Gene: GABRB2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

48. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P28472
Gene: GABRB3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

49. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: O14764
Gene: GABRD
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

50. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P78334
Gene: GABRE
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

51. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q8N1C3
Gene: GABRG1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

52. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P18507
Gene: GABRG2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

53. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q99928
Gene: GABRG3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

54. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. In the uterus, the function of the receptor appears to be related to tissue contractility. The binding of this pI subunit with other GABA(A) receptor subunits alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: O00591
Gene: GABRP
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

55. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P24046
Gene: GABRR1
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

56. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: P28476
Gene: GABRR2
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

57. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel (By similarity).

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: A8MPY1
Gene: GABRR3
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References:

58. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta

GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.

This organochloride antagonizes the action of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting at the GABA-A receptors, effectively blocking the GABA-induced uptake of chloride ions and causing hyperexcitability of the central nervous system. (R029)
UniProt ID: Q9UN88
Gene: GABRQ
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
SNPs: SNPJam Report
References: